Solid-State Battery-Equipped NEVs Poised to Enter Mass Production by 2030, Challenging Gasoline Vehicles, According to TrendForce Report


TrendForce’s recent report titled “Development of Solid-State Batteries for NEVs” has revealed exciting news for the electric vehicle (EV) industry. Automakers are significantly increasing their investments and research into solid-state batteries, which are projected to enter mass production between 2030 and 2035. With the integration of high-activity cathode and anode materials, these batteries are expected to achieve an energy density of up to 500 Wh/kg, providing a driving range two to three times greater than the existing liquid lithium batteries and potentially rivaling traditional gasoline vehicles.

Currently, most new energy vehicles (NEVs) heavily rely on liquid lithium batteries, which can be classified into two main types based on their cathode material: Nickel Cobalt Manganese (NCM) and Lithium Iron Phosphate (LFP). However, TrendForce’s report highlights that both NCM and LFP batteries are approaching their energy density limits. NCM-powered vehicles offer an approximate range of 500–600 km, while LFP-equipped vehicles can cover 300–500 km. Unfortunately, these ranges fall significantly short compared to the 600–1200 km range of gasoline vehicles. Although adopting higher-capacity electrode materials can enhance battery capacity, pairing such materials with lithium batteries increases the risk of thermal runaway during charging and discharging due to the liquid electrolyte. In contrast, solid-state batteries with more structurally stable solid-state electrolytes effectively prevent short circuits, making them an optimal battery solution that strikes a balance between safety and energy density.

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Solid-state electrolytes can be categorized into three main types: sulfides, oxides, and polymers. Based on the weight proportion of liquid electrolytes, batteries can be further classified as semi-solid or solid-state. For NEVs, sulfides and oxides have been identified as the most suitable materials for achieving the required energy density, charge-discharge efficiency, and safety.

Leading the charge in solid-state battery development are Japanese automakers, primarily focusing on sulfides. Toyota, holding numerous patents in this field, has partnered with Panasonic to establish Prime Planet Energy & Solutions, a company dedicated to solid-state battery development. Toyota recently announced its plans to commence mass production of solid-state battery-equipped vehicles by 2027, positioning itself as the fastest Japanese automaker to adopt this technology. Meanwhile, European and American manufacturers are exploring all three paths—sulfides, oxides, and polymers. Mercedes-Benz, one of the primary investors in ProLogium Technology, anticipates the debut of their NEVs equipped with solid-state batteries by 2025. In contrast, Chinese automakers are opting for oxides and have already initiated the mass production of semi-solid batteries. Companies such as NIO, Dongfeng Motor, and Seres plan to launch semi-solid battery vehicles, possibly within this year, positioning themselves as frontrunners in integrating semi-solid batteries. However, it is worth noting that the energy density of semi-solid batteries, approximately 300–400 Wh/kg, noticeably lags behind that of solid-state batteries.

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While several manufacturers are leading the way in solid-state battery development, the industry as a whole still faces challenges related to impedance during interfacial contact, low ionic conductivity, and high costs. Therefore, the timeline for mass production and widespread vehicle integration remains uncertain, according to TrendForce.

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