The global transportation industry is undergoing a transition from traditional fossil fuel-powered vehicles to zero or ultra-low tailpipe emission vehicles. A proper charging station infrastructure, in combination with information technology, smart distributed energy generation units, and favorable government policies, is needed to support this transition.
The Indian government has taken a number of steps to increase the production and adoption of electric vehicles. However, a sufficient number of electric vehicle charging stations (EVCSs) should be made available to accelerate the implementation of electric mobility in the state. Union transport minister Nitin Gadkari has announced the installation of infrastructure for one e-charging kiosk at around 69,000 petrol stations across India as part of the government’s goal of making India an electric vehicle nation by 2030.
Gadkari further added that the government has taken a number of steps to encourage electric vehicles, including lowering the GST rate to 5% and enabling the decoupling of battery costs for 2-3 wheelers from vehicle costs, which account for 30% of the total cost. To encourage the rapid adoption of EVs, the Indian government offers various incentives and subsidies, such as subsidies of Rs. 30,000 for two-wheelers and Rs. 1.5 lakh for four-wheelers, with direct transfer of subsidy to the beneficiary account holder. The government is changing policies to exclude electric vehicles from paying off-road taxes and registration fees.
On October 1, 2019, the new updated guidelines and standards for EV charging infrastructure were announced, with the primary goal of increasing EV adoption in India. In the year 2022, India wants to reduce its reliance on oil imports by 10%. India has set a target of deploying 5,00,000 battery-powered vehicles by 2024, or 25% of all new vehicles. The Ministry of Power released charging infrastructure guidelines and standards, outlining the roles and obligations of various stakeholders at both the federal and state levels.
The Indian government has released some public charging infrastructure guidelines. The rollout of EV public charging infrastructure is going to be wiped out in two phases. In phase 1 (1–3 years), all megacities and therefore the important highways are going to be planned for EVCS. In phase 2 (3–5 years), big cities like state capitals, etc., and the other highways will be covered.
India has a target of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and in order to do so, it is focusing on a number of high-GHG-emitting sectors. The transportation sector, especially road transport, is a major source of GHG emissions, and the use of electric vehicles can help to mitigate this. The transportation industry is currently undergoing three revolutions: autonomous driving, shared mobility, and electrification. As a result, it is critical to consider the synergies and possible interactions among these three evolving revolutions when planning charging infrastructure for electric vehicles. With the popularity of electric cars, a new major electrical load is being added to the power grid, necessitating infrastructure changes. The distribution grid is the only way to transmit electrical energy, limiting the amount of energy that can flow through transmission lines.
What More Is Needed
Adoption of emerging technologies for EV charging, such as V2G, Smart Grid, smart charging technique, and so on, would be extremely beneficial in preserving the power system’s energy balance and maximizing the use of available renewable energy. It would also assist in achieving customer loyalty as well as cost-effective charging rates. The secret to the effective operation of EV charging infrastructure is the implementation of an efficient network of communication for knowledge sharing, and optimization unit for reduced charging time, and a prediction unit to help with the best possible optimization.
The construction of charging stations will accelerate in the coming years, but it is critical to consider the environmental costs and possible global warming effects of these technologies. To meet the goal of reduced reliance on fossil fuels and zero emissions of environmentally polluting gases, a reliable distributed or microgrid system network with maximized energy production from a renewable energy system must be promoted to feed increasing electrical loads in the form of EVs, whose demand is dynamic.
The current state of electric vehicles and charging stations in India demonstrates the country’s commitment to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The Indian government has taken a number of steps to boost electric vehicle production and adoption. In addition, appropriate legislation and regulations are adopted to create a favorable environment for the growth of electric vehicles and their charging infrastructure.