India is a developing country and we have seen noticeable climate change due to the increasing consumption of fossil fuels. With the improving living standard in India, Car and Air Conditioning is getting very affordable to middle class families.

Just affordability of air conditioning can increase overall demand to approx. 140GW in next 15- 20 years. With Govt. push for Clean Energy and incentives for Electric Vehicle, the demand for EV will touch new high in near future. The falling prices of battery and improving technology will add to more adaptability of EV.

Future Energy Demand:

  • India will be largest contributor to additional world energy demand between 2017-2040. India lags ~ 1-2trillion $ in energy assets. We have only 20-40 cars per 1000 people compared to 650 in Germany and 850 in USA.
  • Our Coal and Gas Installed capacity is ~250 GW compared to 1000 GW in China or 800 GW in USA. While building the new energy infrastructure, we have greater flexibility to add more Renewable Energy and clean energy at competitive price.
  • Just room AC alone can add ~140 GW in next 15-20 years. If you see load curves of cities like Mumbai and Delhi in Winter and summers, there is a difference of 25-50% in load requirement during night and afternoon time between summers and winters. Major reason is space cooling in summer.
  • Increase in efficiency by 35% and reduction in price by 40% of domestic air conditioning in the last decade will help in more room AC sales.
  • EV will also help in increase in demand that matches and follow load generation (can be charged during off-peak hours)

 Future of Energy Electric Vehicle

 Key Drivers for adoption of Electric Vehicle:

  • Government push for Clean Energy and E-Mobility.
  • Improvement in DISCOM Health and availability of Grid.
  • Increase in Demand and Availability of cheap finance. Recent bids from Energy Efficiency Service Ltd (EESL) for procurement of EV chargers and vehicles has witnessed noticeable interest of bidders/companies and that is the sign of healthy and growing sector and also indicates that financing and investment from all kind of investors (Institutional investors, pension funds, PE, Bonds) is available.
  • Reduction in storage prices will help intermittency in RE to the Grid. For a Grid scale Battery levelized generation cost is expected to drop from ~ Rs6/kWh to Rs 2/kWh by 2030. Electric Car purchase will reach price parity starts by mid 2020s.
  • FAME (Initiatives of GoI) and other schemes will support adoption of EV.
  • Consumer perception: Improved driving range, Quicker batter charging, faster vehicle speed. By 2040, 32% of new four-wheeler sales in India & 13% of fleet will be electric.

 Future of Energy Electric Vehicle Image 2

 Technology Challenges for Electric Vehicle:

Few of the technological challenges are discussed here

Future of Energy Electric Vehicle Image 3


Cyber Security:

  • Cars are becoming intrinsically connected and there will be ??? millions of connected cars on the road by 2030.
  •  The vulnerability is a car’s electronic network, where up to 100 electronic control units controlling individual functions such as steering wheel angle or the anti-lock brakes, can be linked together.
  • “The car is a browser on wheels”: you need to protect the network with firewalls and intruder detection systems- by Tony Dyhouse, Senior Cyber Security Consultant
  • Chinese group (Keen Security Labs) hacks a Tesla for the second year in a row.

Battery Recycling:

  • Reuse of Li-ion batteries in ancillary services.
  •  Lithium is 100% recyclable, but currently economics does not add up to recycle it. Li-ion battery production is less than 3% of the production cost. Intrinsic value for the Li-ion recycling business currently comes from the valuable metals such as cobalt and nickel that are more highly priced than lithium
  •  The battery recycling market is largely price driven as technology is not a critical differentiating factor.
  • Lack of standardisation in battery chemistries and changing landscape with respect to different elements under research for battery production other than lithium have made evaluation of the recycled value of the components uncertain for the recyclers.

Lead acid remains the most suitable battery to recycle; 70% of its weight contains reusable lead

Battery Chemistry

Metal value (per ton)


Lithium cobalt oxide


Subsidy needed


$50,000 (2017)

Relevant, subsidy

Lithium iron phosphate


Subsidy needed

Lead acid





Subsidy needed



Subsidy needed

Material cost per ton to recycle batteries

EV Charging:

The charging infrastructure remains the big question ahead of EV revolution in India

  • Fast Charging is gaining traction but still power balancing/grid quality is question with Indian condition.
  • EV charging network plan and community charging station?
  •  EV Charging integration with Renewable?
  • The right electricity mix and tariffs.
  • Charging or Swapping? What should be the right mix?
  • Impact on investment of charging station provider of wireless charging becomes a reality in near future.

Credits: Ravi Shaw – Head Engineering, Hinduja Renewables Pvt. Ltd

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